Monday, August 24, 2020

Marketing Plan for All 4 Sports

Question: Talk about theMarketing Plan for All 4 Sports. Answer: Presentation There exists different associations acting in the Australian economy with the point of gaining benefit and setting up a solid piece of the overall industry. There even exist associations that don't pursue benefit augmentation however expect to build up the general public where it works. These associations are non-benefit associations who are occupied with giving all the issues identified with the general public and the network and building up their way of life. The present examination focuses on All 4 Sports, which is a non-benefit association that furnishes the general public with a total youth sports program. The firm chooses members from the kindergarten to secondary school with positive learning and group working encounters alongside the giving preparing information about different games to the young who are oppressed and hail from the retrogressive segments of the general public (Schrader, Freimann Seuring 2012). They attempt to inspire the adolescent from these areas and give them a base to set up themselves in the general public. Each of the 4 Sports has begun another games program where they attempt to find the concealed possibilities of youth in the field of soccer. The firm has teamed up with Sydney Football Club, a main football club in Australia to find youth having ability in football and attempt to give preparing to them in their club to start the initial move towards advancement of expert football players. The firm attempts to make this program accessible and reasonable to the gifted members. They start the program by embraced different gathering pledges exercises with the goal that the members need to pay a base sum. The paper in this way attempts to feature the promoting blend and the SWOT examination of the games program embraced by All 4 Sports. Conversation The requirement for the adolescent football program is misrepresented and confirmed by the data that gives long haul an incentive to the applicants chose in the program. The inclusion in sports brings about the decrease in the adolescent engaging in drugs, wrongdoing and so on. The program expands the social and individual estimation of the adolescent in a useful and positive way and confines social costs that may happen later. The advantages demonstrated in the football sports program approves the idea of All 4 Sports and even pulls in backers to engage with the program. The program of finding future football abilities has been named as The Rising Stars of Football. The crusade accompanies a slogan Come, Play and Enjoy the Game. Lets Football! Market Summary Every one of the 4 Sports conveys important group game and football encounters to youth originating from the retrogressive areas of the general public. The firm gives chance to the youngsters to pick up information about the game and improve the wellness and athletic abilities of the adolescent (Tian Borges 2012). The program even gives information about athlete soul, collaboration, authority, reasonable play, self-assurance and participation among the young. Market Demographics The firm attempts a national level football ability chase of the adolescent hailing from the retrogressive segments of Australia. Out of the complete number of members, 58% of the candidates are male and 42% are female. The games program gives equivalent preparing chance to the male and female (Machmud Sidharta 2014). SWOT Analysis The accompanying subtleties features the qualities and shortcomings that are interior to the firm and the dangers and openings that are outside. The goal is to control the qualities and utilize the open doors introduced by the market and improve the shortcomings and build emergency courses of action to take out the dangers before they become reality. Quality Notoriety of the Program: All 4 Sports is viewed as the best decision for youth sports programs and accordingly numerous football clubs have moved toward them to begin the program. In any case, the firm has picked to team up with Sydney Football Club. Giver Base: The brand picture of the firm has prompted the upgrade of a devoted and stable benefactor base from corporate and private sources. Inner Facilities: The firm gives athletic offices like rec centers, football fields, instructional classes and sports types of gear to the applicants (Tudor NEGRICEA 2012). They even have a cozy relationship with the general population and tuition based schools and football clubs to make support understanding. Web: The site of the association goes to be a significant innovative response for the firm in the field of correspondence, enlistment and data. The firm has had the option to create present and broad data at an insignificant expense. Shortcoming Capital Requirements: The firm needs enhancements in the administration of the budgetary sources. They are needing additional assets to keep up the nature of the program to meet the desires for the general public. The Fund Raising Foundation built up by the firm gives extra money related assets to All 4 Sports. These procedures are helpful in lessening the course expense from the members along these lines making the program moderate (Mohaghar et al., 2012). So as to extend their arrangement, All 4 Sports attempts to acquire new financial specialists in the games program. Offices: The extension of the program requires the need of greater grounds. Hence, this is one of the primary difficulties the firm faces as of now. The dangers from a few viewpoints ascend in the program needs connected with the present limitations and charges has driven them to work together with Sydney FC as they don't have the offices that are fundamental for the advancement of the program and furnish the members with quality preparing and the executives (Brito 2013). The requirement for indoor offices, inventive preparing types of gear and proper practice plan for the up-and-comers has prompted the coordinated effort with Sydney FC by the firm. Preparing and Educations for the Officials and Coaches: The authorities and the mentors require satisfactory preparing to more readily comprehend the organizations reasoning, obligations and conduct with the up-and-comers. The mentors and authorities should be made mindful of the football ability chase program and they have to give broad preparing to the members with the goal that they can have an expert football transporter (Ayub et al., 2013). Staff Challenges: The representatives face gigantic work pressure comparable to the issues of the program and remaining burdens. Openings Geographic Service Area Issues: The consistent improvement in the football program the nation over will draw in new social orders to embrace such projects and might want to take help of the firm to attempt such new projects in different social orders (Robinson 2012). Enthusiasm towards Football: Football is one of the most alluring games and accordingly the inception to find potential future football players will acquire new contender to partake in the program. Program development and network instruction: The people group should be given the information on their drive so they become mindful of their work and the firm is likewise needing extension of the program similarly as with information about the program to the general public, it will prompt new up-and-comers demonstrating enthusiasm of joining the program. Danger Property charge changes: The adjustments in the property duty will prompt alterations for the firm and they will attempt to lessen certain expenses to keep up their present nature of administration. Lawful and Liability Issues: The firm is presented to different issues of risk in the capacities performed by them. The issues run from security and wellbeing to obnoxious attacks that may even prompt any legitimate activities (Ngo O'Cass 2013). Showcasing Mix The showcasing blend system of the firm incorporates the accompanying perspectives: Item The item in concern is an impalpable item and the center advantage of the item is to give preparing and finding the capability of the young people of the regressive areas in the field of football so they increase broad information about the game and can make a future for them (Payaud 2014). This program even goes without the young from moving towards utilization of medications and wrongdoing. The program is very much upheld by the individuals living in the general public. Cost The course charge for the program is evaluated to be around $ 60,000 for each annum yet the sum is over the top expensive for the regressive segments of the general public. The firm has thusly diminished the course charge to $ 10,000 for each annum for them and the rest sum is offset with the assistance of the gifts and the cash got from the supporters. The firm has gotten different private and corporate firms as supporters who put resources into their football ability program and subsequently the remarkable sum is offset with the cash got from the backers (Sisodia, Vyas Maheshkar 2013). This activity fulfills the applicants and the firm can achieve their objective. Spot The football ability program is attempted close to the region where there are all the more in reverse segments dwell with the goal that they know about the program and can partake without any problem. Advancement The program is an advantageous one for the retrogressive areas of the general public and accordingly it requires broad limited time battle to draw in the general public alongside acquiring patrons and financial specialists in the program. They have attempted promotions in papers and TV alongside bulletin ads so the whole network has an information about the program (Hans Gupta 2013). The firm has built an ad expressing the name of the crusade alongside their slogan of Come, Play and Enjoy the Game Lets Football!. The crusade even features the backers related with the program to build the brand estimation of the program. Special Campaign Template Eye catching Message The activity designs that have been recognized in the examination for All 4 Sports will be persuasive in pulling in potential members for the pr

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Ancient Civilizations Essay example -- essays research papers

Early American Civilizations      Early American human advancements were made out of four unique gatherings of individuals. These four gatherings were made out of the Mayas, Aztecs, Incas, and the North Americans. These gatherings were the equivalent from various perspectives, however had a few contrasts that would recognize their gathering from the others. These civic establishments governed the Americas for extensive stretch of time. These civic establishments were the equivalent in pretty much every manner, except they had their disparities to show that they were an entirely unexpected gathering of individuals.      The first gathering that will be talked about is the Mayas. The Mayas were believed to be quiet stargazers for quite a while, however not up to this point the fact of the matter was revealed about the Mayas. The Mayas were really leaders of the crowded, forceful city-states. The Mayas constructed huge sanctuaries for the greatness of the lords and once in a while the sovereigns who administered urban communities of several thousands. They additionally had a preference for self-mutilation, fighting, and a drawn out torment of hostages. The Mayas had fighting with rival urban communities every now and again. Generally the Mayas did this to catch nobles for torment and penance. On the off chance that the Mayas yielded less people than the Aztecs, against whom they frequently had been held up as predominant, they tormented their casualties all the more violently. One way they would torment individuals is, in antiquated ball games, similar to Roman gladiatorial challenges, pitted  â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â  â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â â prisoners were against each other for their lives; the heads of failures were once in a while utilized for balls. In this choice Reilly makes reference to how a ruler would get ready for war. He stated, “Before doing battle, for instance, the lord would cut his penis with a stingray spine, while his better half drew a thistle thorned rope through her tongue'; (Reilly, 326). The Mayas thought this was an imperative procedure for s... ...ey had a truly decent correspondence framework, yet nothing comparable to the Incas. The distinction that isolates the North Americans from different gatherings is that they had the noteworthy hills.      These bunches had their unmistakable likenesses, yet the distinctions set them apart. The route for the Mayas to particular themselves from the others is that they had agreement among all the gatherings of individuals. The Aztecs were distinctive on the grounds that they were by all accounts stricter about things, and they didn’t have the amicability among all the individuals like the Mayas. In contrast to the others, Inca’s rulers attempted to stay in contact with the individuals he administered over, and the Incas had an incredible wellspring of correspondence dissimilar to the others. The North Americans isolated themselves by being less pitiless to individuals, and had those gigantic hills, which were noteworthy structures. Despite the fact that they were the equivalent in most ways, these individuals were distinctive from multiple points of view. In the event that the weren’t, at that point it would have been one gathering of individuals controlling the Americas. These slight contrasts make these individuals contrast each other and the remainder of the world in light of their enormous achievements.

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Eating Disorders and Social Anxiety

Eating Disorders and Social Anxiety Eating Disorders Awareness and Prevention Print Eating Disorders and Social Anxiety By Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS facebook twitter linkedin Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, is a certified eating disorders expert and clinical psychologist who provides cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. Learn about our editorial policy Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on May 21, 2018 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 23, 2018  Image Source, Getty Images More in Eating Disorders Awareness and Prevention Symptoms Treatment Diagnosis When you have an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder (BED), its not uncommon to have anxiety in situations involving eating in front of others or to have concerns about how others perceive your body in social situations. In some cases, such symptoms could also be signs of another mental health issue, specifically social anxiety disorder (SAD). People with eating disorders can often have another mental health issue, such as generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In fact, studies show that about two-thirds of people with eating disorders also have an anxiety disorder. However, SAD is consistently found to be the first or second most common anxiety disorder in patients with eating disorders. Some studies have shown that in patients with anorexia nervosa, the rate of SAD is between 16 and 88 percent; for patients with bulimia nervosa, this rate is between 17 and 68 percent. In the one known study that compared levels of social anxiety in patients with BED, it appears that the incidence of social anxiety is elevated in these individuals when compared with healthy controls. Overall, SAD is significantly more common among individuals with eating disorders than among control groups. What Is Social Anxiety Disorder? Social anxiety is the fear of social situations. In its most extreme form, it reaches diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Prior to the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), this disorder was called “ social phobia”. SAD is an anxiety disorder involving intense discomfort in social interaction, and fear of being embarrassed, rejected or scrutinized by others. In these situations, people with SAD commonly experience physical sensations such as sweating, blushing, shortness of breath, or nausea. They may avoid or try to escape from these situations. How Are Eating Disorders and Social Anxiety Disorder Related? The link between social anxiety and eating disorders makes sense intuitively; anxiety about how one’s self appears to others can lead to an excessive preoccupation with body weight and shape. A recent study indicated that maladaptive perfectionism was a shared risk factor for both social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. It also showed that social appearance anxiety, the fear of one’s appearance being evaluated, specifically predicted eating disorder symptoms including binge eating. Some of the symptoms of the disorders can be similar. People with eating disorders can have anxiety about eating in front of others. They may fear and avoid eating in social situations and worry about others judging them for what and how they eat. Their body image concerns may also become magnified in social situations. For example, they may fear their body size or shape being judged by others and may avoid certain settings or behave in ways (e.g., inappropriately covering up) to avoid drawing attention. Treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder and Eating Disorders Any time a person experiences symptoms of more than one condition, treatment becomes more complicated. There is some evidence that having social anxiety can make eating disorder treatment less effective. Thus, social anxiety must also be addressed in treatment. Fortunately, there are effective treatments. Both SAD and eating disorders can be successfully treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a treatment that focuses on understanding the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Exposure therapy, which involves gradually facing the situations that you fear, is a critical element of CBT for social anxiety disorder. Research supports the effectiveness of body image exposures more generally and it is possible that some of these exposures indirectly reduce the fear of negative evaluation regarding one’s appearance (social appearance anxiety) by teaching clients to tolerate anxiety related to their bodies in social settings. Addressing perfectionism in treatment can decrease both social anxiety and disordered eating symptoms. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs A Word From Verywell Regardless of whether you qualify for a formal diagnosis of SAD, if you have anxiety about eating in front of others or of dressing a certain way in public, treatment should involve exposure. You can work up slowly from less scary situations to those that are scarier. Fortunately, many therapists who work with eating disorders are familiar with the treatment of other commonly co-occurring conditions.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Vergil as the Greatest of all Latin Poets Free Essays

Vergil is generally acknowledged as the greatest of all Latin poets. He was famous in his own lifetime and was the first poet in the history of Latin literature to be the subject of lectures given by a contemporary teacher. There seemed to be a great deal of interest in him and on his rare appearances in Rome he was pointed out in the streets as if he were a celebrity. We will write a custom essay sample on Vergil as the Greatest of all Latin Poets or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, in his private life he was know to be very shy and preferred the quiet countryside to the pandemonium of Rome. He was born as Publius Vergilius Maro in Andes, a small village, near Mantua (Mantova), Italy on October 15, 70 BC. He had two brothers; Silo, who died in his childhood, and Flaccus, who lived to be a young man. Vergil’s father, a potter and cattle farmer, worked hard to provide his son with an Aristocratic education. After he completed his studies in Cremona and Milan, Vergil went to Rome to study law and rhetoric at Epidius’ academy. It was in Rome that he met Gaius Maecenas, a Roman statesman and patron of the arts, who saw Vergil’s promise of greatness and sponsored his education. In addition he developed a friendship with Octavian, who later became Emperor Augustus. While in Rome, he studied alongside many prominent poets including Gaius Cornelius Gallus, Horace, and Lucius Varius Rufus. After leaving Rome, Vergil went to Naples to study under Siro. Here, he studied philosophy and also became a member of a group of Epicurean thinkers outside Naples. This group gathered in Campania, at a retreat known as â€Å"the Garden†, under the leadership of Siro, Vergil’s teacher and friend. Originally, Vergil wanted to study law but he gave up after pleading only one court case and devoted himself to philosophy and literature. He spent most of his life in the countryside of Campania, but kept a house on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, which was given to him by his friend and patron Maecenas. He wrote three major works in his lifetime. Early in his career he wrote the Ecologues, a book of 10 pastoral poems. This was followed by the Georgics, a didactic poem on farm life. His last and greatest work was the Aeneid, a mythological epic poem describing the seven-year wanderings of the hero Aeneas. Vergil’s first major work was composed between 42 and 37 BC. This was a ten book pastoral poem know as the Eclogues or Bucolic. It was modeled on the Idylls of Theocritus, an Alexandrian poet. Vergil’s emphasis is on graceful rhymes and the description of a romantic setting in northern Italy, but he also added many realistic details such as, his father’s eviction from his farm due to political seizure. The most famous of The Ecolouges, The fourth celebrates the birth of a child who is destined to usher in a new Golden Age of peace and goodwill. Critics have made definite connections between Vergil’s fictional characters and real people. Some have suggested that the divine birth refers to Mark Anthony, or possibly Vergil’s friend Octavian, who became Augustus, Rome’s first emperor. Still others see this divine birth as a reference to the birth of Christ. His next major work was the Georgics, or Art of Husbandry, which was written from 36 to 29 BC. It is a four-book poem that described the life of a farmer. Its inspiration is said to come from the Greek poet Hesiod’s Works and Days. Vergil’s position as the leading poet of the age was confirmed with the Georgics publication. The poem deals with planting, caring for orchards and vineyards, stock management, and beekeeping. However, the main emphasis is on the values of Roman life, particularly the work ethic. The poem was designed to be universal in scope with the topics of war, peace, death and resurrection concluding each book. Vergil devoted his last ten years to the composition of the Aeneid. This is his last and, by far, best known work. It was written between the years of 30 to 19 BC in twelve books. Modeled after Homer’s epics, the Iliad and the Odessey, the Aeneid is a mythological epic describing the seven-year wanderings of the Roman hero Aeneas, from the fall of Troy to his military victory in Italy. Aeneas, while central to the story, is more symbolic than realistic. His character exists to tell the story of the founding of Rome and to personify the Roman values of duty and responsibility. In the story, Aeneas escaped from Troy carrying his father on his shoulders and leading his young son Ascanius by the hand. He brought together a fleet of Trojans and sailed the eastern Mediterranean Sea to Thrace, Crete, Epirus, and Sicily before being shipwrecked on the coast of Africa. Here Dido, the queen of Carthage, fell in love with Aeneas. The two began to live together as husband and wife and Aeneas intended to make Carthage his home. Jupiter, king of the gods, warned Aeneas that he must leave Dido in order to continue on his destined mission to found Rome. In despair, Dido killed herself when Aeneas departed for Italy. After landing at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy, Aeneas killed Turnus, the king of the Rutulians, in a war for the hand of Lavinia, who was the princess of Latium. According to Vergil, the Romans were direct descendents of Ascanius, the founder of Alba Longa, the mother city of Rome. The Aeneid is usually considered the first great literary epic, unlike the Iliad, which in essence is a work of oral poetry. The Aeneid was written as a deliberate attempt to glorify Rome at the request of Augustus Ceasar. The historical elements are especially prominent in books five through eight, the central portion of the poem. The Aeneid became a classic in its own day. All of Rome, particularly the royal family, followed the progress of the epic. Vergil would read aloud from rough drafts of the Aeneid to Augustus, his sister, Octavia, and Maecenas. As he refined his work during his later years, the poet led a comfortable life, devoting himself to historical research. In 19 BC, Vergil set out on a trip to Greece and Asia with the intention of revising his masterpiece. In Athens, he met Augustus and unfortunately became very ill during his stay in Greece. Augustus escorted his friend back to Brundisium, Italy, where he died before his epic could be revised to his satisfaction. To prevent the Aeneid from being read in rough form, Vergil left instructions that it be destroyed. Augustus, realizing the value of this work, intervened before this request could be carried out and assigned two of Vergil’s poet friends, Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca, to edit the manuscript for publication. The work was completed near the end of 18 BC. It achieved immediate acceptance throughout the Mediterranean as the definitive Roman epic. On his deathbed, Vergil immortalized himself with a short epitaph, which his friends inscribed above his grave. It ends with this line: â€Å"I sang of pastures, farms and rulers†. This became a touching summary of his three great works. How to cite Vergil as the Greatest of all Latin Poets, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Crucible Essays - Salem Witch Trials, The Crucible, Tituba

The Crucible The Crucible takes place in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692. It begins with a sense of witchcraft in the air, when we find out that Reverend Parris (the town minister) and the town are concerned about Betty, Parris' daughter, who has fallen "a victim of witchcraft." We find out that Betty, her cousin Abigail, Tituba, a slave, and other girls in the town had been cavorting and practicing witchcraft, naked in the woods, the night before. Since this occurred, Betty had been in a coma-like trance that was suspected to be caused by witchcraft. We soon find out that Abigail has control over the other girls and blackmails them into lying which eventually leads to unnecessary murders of innocent people throughout the book. We also find out that Abigail worked for John and Goody Proctor, but was fired after she had an affair with Mr. Proctor. Since then, Abigail has had it out for Goody and was attempting to kill her with witchcraft that night in the woods. Her devious and obviously insane state of mind makes the ?if she can't have him, no one can theory' come into effect, until it suddenly changes into if ?she can't have him, she'll make his and everyone else's lives miserable'. Also, a vicious circle of paranoia and self centeredness comes into action, which also leads to the many unnecessary deaths, when one by one, the innocent are accused, tried, and killed for being witches, even though there is no evidence to support any of the cases, except for the reactions of Abigail and the other girls in the courtroom. The play ends with John Proctor being tried and hung for suspicions of witchcraft, even though he is obviously not a witch. Their reasoning is that all of the others were unjustly killed, so he had to be killed also. It also says that Abigail leaves town and was rumored to have become a prostitute.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay Example

Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay Example Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay A Look at Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Topics Covered: 1) What is Data Mining and why is it used? 2) How is Data Mining used in the Pharmaceutical Industry? 3) Recent debate in the legality of Data Mining and the Pharmaceutical Industry Pharmaceutical companies are taking advantage of the growing use of technology in the healthcare arena by using data to enhance their marketing efforts and increase the quality of research and development. The process of data mining allows companies to extract useful information from large sets of individual data. This process provides a knowledge that is vital to a pharmaceutical company’s competitive position and organizational decision-making. â€Å"Data Mining enables firms and organizations to make calculated decisions by assembling, accumulating, analyzing and accessing corporate data. It uses variety of tools like query and reporting tools, analytical processing tools, and Decision Support System (DSS) tools† (Rangan, 2007). 1) What is Data Mining and why is it used? Data mining is the practice of automatically searching large stores of data to discover patterns and trends that go beyond simple analysis. Data mining uses sophisticated mathematical algorithms to segment the data and evaluate the probability of future events. Data mining is also known as Knowledge Discovery in Data (KDD)† (Oracle, 2008). As stated, data mining is used to help find patterns and relationships stored within large sets of data, these patterns and relationships are then used to provide know ledge and value to the end user. The data can help prove and support earlier predictions usually based on statistics or aid in uncovering new information about products and customers. It is usually used by business intelligence organizations, and financial analysts, but is increasingly being used in the sciences to extract information from the enormous data sets generated by modern experimental and observational methods. Data mining is being increasingly used in business to help identify trends that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. There are several different opinions on the exact â€Å"steps† of data mining, but they all agree on these basics: planning, modeling and extracting information. Oracle defines 4 steps in the data mining process: 1) problem definition, 2) data gathering and preparation, 3) model building and evaluation, and 4) knowledge deployment. The first step of data mining is to understand the purpose, scope and requirements of the project . Once the project is specified from a business perspective, it can be formulated as a data mining problem and a preliminary implementation plan can be developed† (Oracle, 2008). The data gathering process takes a look at how well the data serves the purpose of the project. In this step many changes can be made to the attributes of the data so that they better serve the objective and requirements of the project. This process can play a large part in the value of the knowledge and information derived from the data. For example, you might transform a DATE_OF_BIRTH column to AGE; you might insert the average income in cases where the INCOME column is null† (Oracle, 2008). The third step of data mining is to build and evaluate the model. The model should be tested and evaluated to make sure that it will answer the question and stay within the requirements of the business objectives stated in the first phase of the process. The final phase includes knowledge deployment which is where actual information and realization comes from the data. Here is where the relationships and patterns are turned into something meaningful that meets the objective of the project. There are several techniques used for data mining, some of them have been used for decades prior to the information technology boom that has changed the system dramatically. According to (Alex Berson, 2000), these â€Å"classic† techniques include Statistics, Neighborhoods and Clustering while the â€Å"next generation† techniques include Trees, Networks and Rules. In the end the purpose of each of these techniques is to explore data (usually large amounts of data typically business or market related) in search of consistent patterns and/or systematic relationships between variables, and then to validate the findings by applying the detected patterns to new subsets of data† (StatSoft, 2011). As stated above, data mining is often used to solve business decision problems, â€Å"it provides ways to quantitatively measure what business users should already know qualitatively† (Linoff, 2004). A growing number of industries are using data mining to become more competitive in their market by primarily focusing on the customers; increasing their customer relationships and increasing customer acquisition. 2) How is Data Mining Used in the Pharmaceutical Industry? The pharmaceutical industry has copious uses for data mining which include increasing the efficiency of research and development, contributing to drug safety information and to increasing the effectiveness of their marketing efforts. Understanding that the benefit of data mining is allowing for the extraction of useful information from large sets of individual data, it is evident that the pharmaceutical industry has a need for this process. The abundance of diseases prevalent in the world, the multitude of drugs available for each disease, and the variety of patients that take the products, produces massive amounts of information available in the industry. Pharmaceutical companies have begun to use this data to benefit patient safety, physician knowledge and their own marketing efforts. Data mining can be used while companies are researching and testing new products. â€Å"Scientists run experiments to determine activity of potential drugs† (Rangan, 2007). They are able to use process that produce results and relationships much faster, they can quickly determine activity on â€Å"relevant genes or to find drug compounds that have desirable characteristics† (Rangan, 2007). â€Å"By relating the chemical structure of different compounds to their pharmacological activity, [data mining] can bringing a degree of predictability to drug screening procedures that, until now, have tended to be a bit hit and miss† (Results, 2009). That should help scientists and pharmaceutical companies identify more effective compounds to treat different diseases, allowing them to find drug leads in a fraction of the time and at a fraction of the cost of current methods. † The earlier methods of experimentation was very time consuming and had to be done over and ov er again each time a new drug was being researched, none of the old information was every used to help with speedier development. Data mining allows the past research to be used when picking compounds as opposed to just randomly choosing and testing. As a drug gets further into the development and into the clinical trial stages, data mining can help predict which diseases and patients will benefit from the drug. Based on past information data mining will provide a correlation between the new molecules, disease states and patients. For example, Pfizer is â€Å"turning to sophisticated data mining techniques to help improve the design of new trials, to better understand possible new uses for existing drugs, and to help examine how drugs are being used after they have been approved† (Salamone). During trial phases they are able to â€Å"understand safety and efficacy profiles within the patient population by tackling the question of patient selection within the framework of demonstrating groups that are most responsive. Data mining framework enables specialists to create customized nodes that can be shared throughout the organization† (Rangan, 2007). Additionally, one of the greatest benefits of data mining in the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare world is the discovery of adverse events and drug toxicity in patients. It could help determine the adverse reactions associated with a specific drug and still go a step further to show if any specific condition aggravates the adverse reaction for eg age, sex, and obesity (Novartis Business Intelligence report, 2004). Data mining is useful in almost every stage of drug discovery and can aid in toxicity detection, side effect profiles and can work to uncover responsiveness in certain patients. â€Å"The patterns that emerge from data mining this information will not only improve our understanding of this disease, but could give practitioners new insights into prevention and treatment. (Rangan, 2007). As addressed above, a limiting factor in past and current pharmaceutical data is the sheer amount of data and lack of information that exists in the industry. Knowledge and information is being slowed at even a physician and patient level, for example the FDA estimates that only 1% of serious adverse events are actually reported to the companies after they h appen because most practicing healthcare providers do not have the time or means to report the adverse events and have no need for the data at a later time. There is a strong need for data mining techniques within the pharmaceutical industry to understand and detect possible adverse events before they happen to patients. Outside of product research, development and safety, pharmaceutical organizations are using data mining techniques to increase their marketing efforts directly to the consumer as well as to the prescribing physician. They are able to see a better return on the investment of resources based on mining the prescription data released by pharmacies. As discussed earlier, many businesses are using data mining to increase their customer relationships nd encourage product growth. They are able to use the data to gather knowledge and information in order to create more effective and efficient sales strategies. â€Å"Data mining can be used to supplement the pharmaceutical companies marketing efforts by market segmentation, measuring return on investment (ROI) and understanding profitable managed care formulary status. â€Å"A p harmaceutical company can analyze its recent sales force activity and their results to improve targeting of high-value physicians and determine which marketing activities will have the greatest impact in the next few months. The data needs to include competitor market activity as well as information about the local health care systems. The results can be distributed to the sales force via a wide-area network that enables the representatives to review the recommendations from the perspective of the key attributes in the decision process. The ongoing, dynamic analysis of the data warehouse allows best practices from throughout the organization to be applied in specific sales situations. † (Alex Berson, 2000) Market segmentation allows for tailored messaging and information to be given to appropriate customers where their need is specifically met. Prescribing information allows the sales representatives to spend appropriate time and resources on customers that have the most need for individual products based on their patient population and historical prescribing trends. â€Å"Supplemented by survey data, patient and physician interviews, information gleaned from epidemiological studies and managed care organizations, questionnaires on web sites, and other market research, a quite detailed picture of a customer base can be identified, with marketing strategies devised accordingly† (Cohen). This is critical at the launch of a product, in order to determine the â€Å"early adopters† that will drive a product use and share their success with professional peers. A successful product launch to the right market segment can allow a product to surpass its competitors in the field. Especially in the era of â€Å"me-too† products with similar efficacy and slightly lower side effects than earlier competitors, the effectiveness of a product launch is vital to the career of the product. Identifying the early adopters and focusing tailored promotional efforts on this segment (as opposed to broadcasting a general message to all physicians) can be crucial to the success of the product† (Cohen). Measuring the ROI of certain programs and resources the organizations use, can help save time and money by making sure the resources are being put in the most favorable places to produce the most amount of business and patient satisfaction. Data mining allows pharmaceutical companies to get an idea of how their field promotions and direct to consumer promotion programs are driving business results. The promotional efforts of these organizations are tremendous and indlude field promotions: representative sales calls, peer-to-peer dinner meetings, exhibits at conventions, promotional samples, and direct to consumer advertising which include: commercials, websites, patient education materials the companies spend billions of dollars on the promotion of a single product. Data mining can help stream line the customers that are targeted for these promotional events and help make more accurate decisions on where to spend their resources so that they make sense for the physician, patient and the organization. The formulary status of a specific drug is very dependent on the location and area in question. The managed care market dynamics are very critical to effective targeting and marketing of pharmaceutical companies. Physicians are generally unaware of specific prescription coverage on certain health care plans, especially if a pharmacy benefits manager (PBM) is used in lieu of the actual healthcare benefits to manage prescriptions. For this reason it is important that each organization have the data to support the needs of the various customers and plans to help physicians overcome the obstacles they encounter while prescribing certain drugs to their specific environment. There are many facets of the pharmaceutical industry, including patient care and marketing that can widely benefit from utilizing decision support systems and data mining. The process is revolutionizing early drug discovery and increasing the speed and effectiveness that scientists have in uncovering new molecules to treat various disease states. It has a place in patient safety by providing early detection of drug-on-drug interactions, toxicity and adverse reactions. Finally it is widely used to supplement the marketing efforts in the field and increase the business acumen and accuracy of the promotional side of the industry. 3) Recent debate in the legality of Data Mining and the Pharmaceutical Industry In the past 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has been scrutinized for various activities that have lawmakers on the watch and uncertain about the agenda these organizations have when promoting their products. With the blatant need for healthcare reform and a slow demise of the American healthcare industry this scrutiny of the pharmaceutical industry has steadily increased and the reputation of these organizations has increasingly plummeted. Within this scrutiny, authorities have begun to question the lawfulness of data mining and the use of prescription-drug records used in promotional efforts. Some argue that the data-mining is purely to grow market share for money-hungry companies and has little relation to the care or need of patients and physicians. As recently as 2011 the Supreme Court heard a case assessing the legality of prescription-drug records being used to promote pharmaceutical products. After a patient fills a prescription â€Å"pharmacies can sell the other information in those prescriptions to data-mining companies (they cannot sell patient identification information), who sift through all this information, spot trends and patterns, and then sell that to, as in this case, drug companies, who can then have their sales representatives do targeted marketing of brand-name drugs to doctors† (Coyle, 2011). Drug makers buy prescription records that reveal the prescribing practices of individual doctors from data mining companies and, based on the information, practice a type of marketing called detailing, in which sales representatives, who already know which doctors prescribe certain kinds of medications, pitch information about new drugs they think will be of interest to the doctor† (Lewis, 2011). The discrepancy existed in the State of Vermont where lawmakers made it unlawful to sell this information without the prescribing physicians consent, however this law was ruled unconstitutional in the lower federal appellate court, bringing the decision to the Supreme Court. The following is an excerpt from an interview done after the hearing. Vermonts purpose in enacting the law was to protect the privacy of the doctors information, to encourage prescription of generic drugs, which would help lower health costs in the state, and also to protect the public health, which it felt could be endangered by drug companies sales representatives presenting one-sided information to the doctors. Then, on the other side, you have the drug companies and other businesses concerned that if the court restricts access to this kind of information then, that they wont get the kind of information they say they need to make important business decisions, ot just marketing decisions, research decisions, ot her decisions that they think could be beneficial to consumers† (Coyle, 2011). The Supreme Court ended up over-ruling this decision based on the First Amendment right and gave pharmaceutical industries a big victory in their use of Data Mining. â€Å"The Supreme Court handed down a 6-3 majority decision and ruled that the law interfered with the pharmaceutical industrys First Amendment right to market its products (Lewis, 2011). † Despite the controversy, it is evident that there is a wealth of knowledge and information to be gained by the use of data mining in the pharmaceutical industry. It is a process that allows an organization to streamline the massive amounts of data and make educated research developments and business decisions based on the information. Alex Berson, S. S. (2000). Building Data Application for CRM. McGraw-Hill. Cohen, J. (n. d. ). Data Mining of Market Knowledge in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Data Mining of Market Knowledge in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Coyle, M. (2011, April 26). National Law Journal. (R. Suarez, Interviewer) Lewis, N. (2011, Januray 24). Drug Prescription Data Mining Cleared by the Supreme Court. Retrieved August 09, 2011, from Informtion Week: informationweek. com/news/healthcare/security-privacy/231000397 Linoff, G. (2004). Data Miners. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Data Miners Inc. : data-miners. com/resources/SUGI29-Survival. pdf Oracle. (2008, May). Data Mining Concepts. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Oracle: http://download. oracle. com/docs/cd/B28359_01/datamine. 111/b28129/process. htm Rangan, J. (2007). Applications of Data Mining Techniques in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Theoretical and Implied Information Technology, 7. Results, I. (2009, Feb 3). Data Mining Promises to Dig Up New Drugs. Retrieved August 9, 2011, from Science Daily: sciencedaily. com/releases/2009/02/090202140042. htm Salamone, S. (n. d. ). Pfizer Data Mining Focuses on Clinical Trials. Retrieved August 09, 2011, from Bio. It. Com: bio-itworld. com/newsitems/2006/february/02-23-06-news-pfizer StatSoft. (2011). Statsoft: Data Mining Techniques. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Statsoft: statsoft. com/textbook/data-mining-techniques/#eda

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The History and Domestication of Bananas

The History and Domestication of Bananas Bananas (Musa spp) are a tropical crop, and a staple in the wet tropic areas of Africa, the Americas, mainland and island Southeast Asia, South Asia, Melanesia and the Pacific islands. Perhaps 87% of the total bananas consumed worldwide today are locally consumed; the rest is distributed outside of the wet tropical regions in which they are grown. Today there are hundreds of fully domesticated banana varieties, and an uncertain number are still in various stages of domestication: that is to say, they still are inter-fertile with wild populations. Bananas are basically giant herbs, rather than trees, and there are approximately 50 species in the Musa genus, which includes the edible forms of bananas and plantains. The genus is split into four or five sections, based on the number of chromosomes in the plant, and the region where they are found. Furthermore, over a thousand different types of cultivars of bananas and plantains are recognized today. The different varieties are characterized by wide differences in peel color and thickness, flavor, fruit size, and resistance to disease. The bright yellow one found most frequently in western markets is called the Cavendish. Cultivating Bananas Bananas produce vegetative suckers at the base of the plant which can be removed and planted separately. Bananas are planted at a typical density of between 1500-2500 plants per square hectare. Between 9-14 months after planting, each plant produces some 20-40 kilograms of fruit. After the harvest, the plant is cut down, and one sucker is allowed to grow up to produce the next crop. Banana Phytoliths The evolution of bananas are difficult to study archaeologically, and so the domestication history was unknowable until recently. Banana pollen, seeds, and pseudostem impressions are quite rare or absent at archaeological sites, and much of the recent research has been focused on the relatively new technologies associated with opal phytoliths- basically silicon copies of cells created by the plant itself. Banana phytoliths are uniquely shaped: they are volcaniform, shaped like little volcanoes with a flat crater at the top. There are differences in the phytoliths between varieties of bananas, but variations between wild and domesticated versions are not as yet definitive, so additional forms of research need to be used to fully understand banana domestication. Genetics and Linguistics Genetics and linguistic studies also help in understanding banana history. Diploid and triploid forms of bananas have been identified, and their distribution throughout the world is a key piece of evidence. In addition, linguistic studies of local terms for bananas support the notion of the spread of the banana away from its point of origin: island southeast Asia. Exploitation of early wild forms of bananas has been noted at the Beli-Lena site of Sri Lanka by c 11,500-13,500 BP, Gua Chwawas in Malaysia by 10,700 BP, and Poyang Lake, China by 11,500 BP. Kuk Swamp, in Papua New Guinea, so far the earliest unequivocal evidence for banana cultivation, had wild bananas there throughout the Holocene, and banana phytoliths are associated with the earliest human occupations at Kuk Swamp, between ~10,220-9910 cal BP. Todays Hybridized Bananas Bananas have been cultivated and hybridized a number of times over several thousand years, so well concentrate on the original domestication, and leave the hybridization to botanists. All edible bananas today are hybridized from  Musa acuminata  (diploid) or  M. acuminata  crossed with  M. balbisiana  (triploid). Today,  M. acuminata  is found throughout mainland and island southeast Asia including the eastern half of the Indian subcontinent;  M. balbisiana  is mostly found in mainland Southeast Asia. Genetic changes from  M. acuminata  created by the domestication process include the suppression of seeds and the development of parthenocarpy: the ability of humans to create a new crop without the need for fertilization. Bananas Across the World Archaeological evidence from the  Kuk Swamp  of the highlands of New Guinea indicates that bananas were deliberately planted by at least as long ago as 5000-4490 BC (6950-6440 cal BP). Additional evidence indicates that  Musa acuminata  ssp  banksii  F. Muell was dispersed out of New Guinea and introduced into eastern Africa by ~3000 BC (Munsa and Nkang), and into South Asia (the Harappan site of Kot Diji) by 2500 cal BC, and probably earlier. The earliest banana evidence found in Africa is from  Munsa, a site in Uganda dated to 3220 cal BC, although there are problems with the stratigraphy and chronology. The earliest well-supported evidence is at Nkang, a site located in southern Cameroon, which contained banana phytoliths dated between 2,750 to 2,100 BP. Like  coconuts, bananas were most widely spread as a result of the sea exploration of the Pacific by Lapita peoples ca 3000 BP, of extensive trade voyages throughout the Indian Ocean by Arab traders, and of exploration of the Americas by Europeans. Sources Ball T, Vrydaghs L, Van Den Hauwe I, Manwaring J, and De Langhe E. 2006.  Differentiating banana phytoliths: wild and edible Musa acuminata and Musa Journal of Archaeological Science 33(9):1228-1236.balbisiana.   De Langhe E, Vrydaghs L, de Maret P, Perrier X, and Denham T. 2009. Why Bananas Matter: An introduction to the history of banana domestication.  Ethnobotany Research Applications  7:165-177. Open Access Denham T, Fullagar R, and Head L. 2009.  Plant exploitation on Sahul: From   Quaternary International  202(1-2):29-40.colonisation to the emergence of regional specialisation during the Holocene. Denham TP, Harberle SG, Lentfer C, Fullagar R, Field J, Therin M, Porch N, and Winsborough B. 2003.  Origins of Agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea.  Science  301(5630):189-193. Donohue M, and Denham T. 2009.  Banana (Musa spp.) Domestication in the Asia-Pacific Region: Linguistic and archaeobotanical perspectives.  Ethnobotany Research Applications  7:293-332. Open Access Heslop-Harrison JS, and Schwarzacher T. 2007.  Domestication, Genomics and the Future for Banana.  Annals of Botany  100(5):1073-1084. Lejju BJ, Robertshaw P, and Taylor D. 2006.  Africas earliest bananas?  Journal of Archaeological Science  33(1):102-113. Pearsall DM. 2008.  Plant . In: Pearsall DM, editor.  Encyclopedia of Archaeology. London: Elsevier Inc. p 1822-1842.domestication Perrier X, De Langhe E, Donohue M, Lentfer C, Vrydaghs L, Bakry F, Carreel F, Hippolyte I, Horry J-P, Jenny C et al. 2011.  Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  Early Edition.